Never before have we seen so many new trains enter service on the UK’s railways. It means politicians can no longer complain about a lack of rail investment in the country, especially in the north, where so much cash has been provided for new rolling stock (see “All change”, September 2019 issue).

However, some readers will lament the fact that most of the new trains have been manufactured overseas by firms such as Germany’s Siemens, Spain’s CAF or Switzerland’s Stadler. While it is true that Hitachi has a factory in the north-east, a few of its IEP trains (or their parts) have come from Italy (Hitachi has a plant at Pistoia) and Japan.